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Changes in Colorado’s Rules of Civil Procedure Aimed at Frontloading Litigation to Decrease Costs

After testing new rules in a select number of Colorado districts over the past few years, on July 1, 2015, the Colorado Supreme Court adopted new rules intended to significantly change civil litigation, especially the discovery process. This initial stage of a lawsuit – depositions, document requests and production, and interrogatories – is costly in client time and legal fees. Responding to complaints about those escalating costs, the new rules focus on setting discovery parameters early in a case to proportionally reflect the monetary claim and controversy at issue. Above all, the rules seek to restrict discovery of documents or issues merely tangential to the real source of the dispute or, more cynically, to move past “scorched earth” litigation tactics. The Court hopes to do so by rewriting the case management process, abandoning default or presumptive orders in favor of open communication between counsel and the court to reach an order tailored to the specific needs of each individual case. Judges will also play a stronger role in managing the discovery process.

The new discovery rule (CRCP 16(b)) now requires parties to meet in person or by telephone to reach a proposed case management order that details the claims, defenses, description of the case, settlement efforts, amount in controversy, proportional discovery limits, discovery timing, expert witness considerations, treatment of electronic information, and all deadlines in advance of a firm trial date. Where agreement cannot be achieved, both parties must present their respective positions in advance of the mandatory court conference, which must occur 49 days after the case is at issue. The rule—like other similar rule new changes beyond the scope of this post—requires the court to “actively oversee” the process.

Of course, adverse parties will continue to have different views of what their case requires, and it is facile to expect agreement on case parameters before an in-depth investigation into the dispute has commenced. To this end, the success of the new rules will hinge on whether or not judges actively oversee and are willing to involve themselves in the discovery phase of cases on their dockets. Often, this is not a question of the bench’s desire to administer justice, but rather the practical requirements of managing caseloads that may leave little time for a judge to decide discovery disputes. Only time will tell if the rule’s new demands on the bench to routinely oversee discovery can and will be implemented.

To this end, the new rules afford counsel the opportunity to further clients’ goals by always endeavoring to keep good, open lines of communication with opposing counsel. Indeed, under the prior rules where the bench rarely involved itself in discovery unless absolutely necessary, conceding a small point rarely returned any benefit to the conciliatory party, removing any incentive to self-regulate the process and resulting in relatively unrestrained discovery where both sides “wanted it all.” Now, because the rules require the court to “actively oversee” the discovery process, if the opposition is unwilling to reciprocate and concede anything, the court will likely recognize which party is causing the friction and respond accordingly. Thus, under the new regime, it should be easier to establish trust and candor with the court, which could yield substantive benefits for a party in addition to saving money. Though discovery will always be contentious as each side will have a different view of the case and its requirements, Colorado’s new rules present a real opportunity to reach the merits more quickly and inexpensively.

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