Legal Updates

Early State Challenges to the Clean Power Plan Fall Short of Stay

On August 3, 2015, the Obama Administration through the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) announced the implementation of the Clean Power Plan (“CPP”) which has the stated purpose of “establishing guidelines for states to follow in developing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric generating units,” or, in layman’s terms, to cut carbon emissions from power plants. The Final Rule addresses both new and existing power plants. Through the CPP, the EPA has set forth (1) carbon dioxide performance rates for fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units and stationary combustion turbines; (2) state-specific carbon dioxide goals based on past carbon dioxide performance rates; and (3) guidelines for the development and implementation of state or multi-state plans that establish standards and other measures to implement these performance rates.

The ultimate goal of the CPP is to reduce carbon pollution from power plants by 32% from baseline 2005 levels by 2030, and sets reduction goals for each state. In determining these reduction goals, the EPA considered each state’s current carbon dioxide emissions and fossil fuel generations. Individual state plans are due in June 2017 and multi-state plans are due in June 2018. States must begin complying with their plans by 2022, with reductions phased through a “glide path” to 2030. For western state targets see 8/5/15 post

In issuing the rule, the Obama Administration cited environmental and health effects of carbon dioxide, a primary greenhouse gas. According to the EPA, electric power facilities accounted for almost a third of greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. in 2013. Options for meeting the rule presented by the EPA include increased reliance on alternative energy sources, transitioning from coal to natural gas, and increased energy efficiency.

However, many energy providers that currently rely on coal-fired power plants have already requested a delay in the implementation timeline set forth in the rule. They cite concerns such as increases in electricity rates, decreases in system reliability, and the loss of jobs due to the potential closure of non-compliant plants.

Fifteen coal-reliant states, led by West Virginia and including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming filed a petition for an emergency stay of the CPP with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit on August 13, 2015. They argued that amendments to the Clean Air Act in 1990 prevent the EPA from regulating a carbon emissions source, such as existing power plants, under Section 111(d), as these emissions are already regulated under Section 112. The states also argued the EPA is requiring more stringent standards for existing coal-fired power plants than new power plants, thereby undermining the viability of continuing use of the existing facilities. The Court dismissed their petition on September 9, 2015, in a one sentence order stating only that the petition did not satisfy “the stringent standards that apply to petitions for extraordinary writs that seek to stay agency action.” There will be more challenges. Stay tuned.

The CPP is codified at 40 CFR Part 60 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2013-0602; FRL-XXXX-XX-OAR] and is available online at, and the Petition for an Emergency Stay is available at