Preliminary Considerations in Condemnation Actions

In condemnation actions in Colorado, the condemning party must take great care to satisfy legal prerequisites prior to initiating suit and, in most cases, moving for immediate possession of the subject property. By statute, immediate possession will only be granted upon a showing that: 1) a public agency with condemnation power has properly determined that it is necessary to acquire the landowner’s property; 2) the property is being acquired for a public use; 3) immediate possession is necessary; 4) the parties have failed to agree upon compensation; and 5) the probable market value of the property to allow the court to set the amount to be deposited with the Court as security the ultimate payment of compensation. C.R.S. §§ 38-1-105(6)(a) and 38-1-109. Good faith negotiation between the condemning entity and the landowner is also mandatory prior to an exercise of the power of eminent domain. C.R.S. § 38-1-102. In addition to these statutory requirements, fundamental constitutional rights to notice and due process also constrain any attempt to condemn and take possession of private land.

While these constitutional and statutory considerations have been in place for some time, Colorado courts are applying them with renewed vigor recently. One essential lesson from this increased attention on foundational legal prerequisites is the importance of the language within the documents describing the rights to be acquired. Whether a deed in fee simple or the varied access and utility easements frequently condemned, these legal documents must be carefully drafted to provide appropriate notice to the landowner of the rights being subjected to the power of eminent domain. Not only does this satisfy the constitutional guarantee of due process, but it also benefits the parties and the court. Without a clear definition of such rights, neither the property owner nor the condemning agency can accurately determine the value to be paid for these rights or their impact on any remaining property. Properly delineating the rights being acquired can save significant expense and frustration for the condemning entity, which will be paying just compensation for the property taken. Conversely, the landowner whose property rights will be impacted by the taking will have certainty and security in their property going forward, not to mention a much smoother, shorter, and less costly trial process. Thus, when fulfilling the statutory prerequisite mandating good-faith negation between the parties prior to commencement of a condemnation suit, both the condemning entity and the landowner should discuss and work collaboratively to craft specific title language for any condemnation.

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